IRAQ: How We Got There

Yyyy-mm-ddEventUSA Admin
1908 Oil is discovered in Iran.T Roosevelt
1914-11-British forces arrive in Basra to secure the Iranian oilfields against the Turks and their German allies.W Wilson
1916 The secret Sykes-Picot Agreement carves up the Levant between Britain and France.W Wilson
1917-03-Sir Stanley Maude leads British troops into Baghdad. He is dubbed "the Liberator" by the British.W Wilson
1919-05-12Winston Churchill writes, "I am strongly in favour of using poisoned gas against uncivilised tribes."W Wilson
1920-04-The San Remo Peace Conference of Allied Powers endorses Sykes-Picot: a British mandate in Palestine, Transjordan, and Mesopotamia (renamed Iraq, created out of the Ottoman provinces of Basra, Baghdad, and Mosul) and French control of Syria and Lebanon.W Wilson
1920-06- In response to an armed uprising against British occupation, the RAF drops 97 tons of bombs and fires 183,861 rounds. Nine British soldiers are killed; 9,000 Iraqis die. Lt. Col. Gerald Leachman says, "The only way to deal with the tribes is wholesale slaughter." W Wilson
1920-08-. 22TE. Lawrence, writing in the Sunday Times, "The people of England have been led in Mesopotamia into a trap from which it will be hard to escape with dignity and honour. They have been tricked into it by a steady withholding of information..." W Wilson
1921-08-. 23 After a British-orchestrated election, King Faisal is installed with 96 percent of the vote. His first official act is to cede military and economic control back to the British.
1922-09- 11 Churchill writes to Lloyd George, "At present we are paying eight millions a year for the privilege of living on an ungrateful volcano out of which we are in no circumstances to get anything worth having."
1925 British forces drop poison gas on the Kurdish town of Sulaimaniyo.
1932-10-. 3 Iraq gains independence.H Hoover
1934 The first of seven military coups over the next five years occurs.FD Roosevelt
1945 Iraq becomes a founding member of the Arab League.FD Roosevelt
1948 Iraq joins other Arab countries in an abortive war against Israel.HS Truman
1953-10-. 7Failed Ba'athist coup attempt. 78 Ba'athists are tried, but Saddam Hussein escapes to Syria and then Egypt.DD Eisenhower
1955-02-. 24Iraq signs the Baghdad Pact with Britain, Iran, Pakistan, and Turkey to provide British-supported mutual defense. The Pan-Arabism movement begins to develop as a reaction to these Western ties.14 DD Eisenhower
1956-03-12In response to the Baghdad Pact, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Egypt sign a mutual defense agreement against Israel.DD Eisenhower
1958-07-14The army launches a coup against the Hashemite monarchy. King Faisal II is killed and the statue of Stanley "the Liberator" Maude is torn down.DD Eisenhower
1959-03-24Iraq withdraws from the Baghdad Pact.DD Eisenhower
1961-06-Kuwait declares independence from Britain and Iraqi ruler Qasim calls for "the return of Kuwait to the Iraqi homeland."JF Kennedy
1963-02-. 08Ba'ath Party takes power.JF Kennedy
1963-02-. 11The U.S. grants official recognition to the Ba'ath government.JF Kennedy
1972-03-9Iraq signs a 15-year treaty of "friendship and cooperation" with the USSR.RM Nixon
1976Iraq buys a nuclear reactor from France.GR Ford
1979 -07-16Saddam Hussein becomes president.J Carter
1980-09-. Iraq invades Iran.J Carter
1981-06-8Israel bombs Iraq's Osirak nuclear reactor.RW Regan
1982-02-Over congressional objectiohs, the Reagan administration removes Iraq from its list of terrorist countries.RW Regan
1982-1988 The United States Defense Intelligence Agency provides Iraq with information on Iranian deployments, battle plans, and bomb-damage assessments.RW Regan
1983 Reagan secretly allows Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Egypt, and Italy to transfer U.S. weapons to Iraq.RW Regan
1983 -11-. 26A National Security Directive says that the U.S. will do "whatever is necessary and legal" to prevent Iraq from losing the Iran-Iraq War.RW Regan
1983 Dec. 19-20President Reagan dispatches Donald Rumsfeld to Baghdad with a handwritten letter for Saddam Hussein and a message that the U.S. is prepared to resume diplomatic relations.RW Regan
1984-03-Rumsfeld returns to Baghdad to assure Iraqi Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz that the administration's criticism of the use of chemical weapons did not signal a change in policy.RW Regan
1985-06- A bill to put Iraq back on the supporters of terrorism list is introduced in the House. Under pressure from George Shultz, the bill is dropped and Iraq remains off the list.RW Regan
1986 -03-21 U.S. votes against a UN Security Council statement condemning Iraq's use of chemical weapons.RW Regan
1986-12-Bob Woodward reports that in 1984 the CIA began giving information to Iraqi intelligence to help "calibrate" poison-gas attacks against Iran. (*86-12)RW Regan
1986-1989 Commerce Dept. licenses 70 biological exports to Iraq, including 21 batches of lethal strains of anthrax, and approves shipment of weapons-grade botulin and mustard gas components.RW Regan
1988 -03-16 Up to 5,000 people die in a poison gas attack on Halabja in northern Iraq. Most sources say the attack was part of a campaign by Saddam Hussein against the Kurds. A 1990 report by the Strategic Studies Institute of the Army War College blames Iranian forces.RW Regan
1988 -08-. 20 The Iran-Iraq War ends. One million Iranian lives were lost; 150,000 Iraqi.RW Regan
1988-08- Iraq unleashes chemical weapons against Iran. 65,000 Iranians are killed.RW Regan
1988-09-. The Commerce Dept. approves the shipment of weapons-grade anthrax and botulinum to Iraq. Assistant Secretary of State Richard Murphy says, "The U.S.-Iraqi relationship is ... important to our long-term objectives."RW Regan
1989 -03-The CIA director reports to Congress that Iraq is the largest chemical weapons producer in the world.GHW Bush
1989 -10-. 21A secret cable from James Baker to Tariq Aziz says that Bush's policy "is to work to strengthen the relationship between the United States and Iraq whenever possible."GHW Bush
1990-07-18--08- 1The Bush administration approves $4.8 million in advanced technology sales to Iraq. End-buyers include the Ministry of Industry and Military Industrialization.GHW Bush
1990-07-23Reports indicate that 30,000 Iraqi troops have moved to the Kuwait border.GHW Bush
1990-07-25,US Ambassador April Glaspie assures Saddam that the U.S. wants "better and deeper relations" and tells him that the U.S. does not take a position on disputes between Arab countries.GHW Bush
1990-08-. 2Iraq invades Kuwait.GHW Bush
1990-08-. 5Bush says that the invasion "will not stand."GHW Bush
1990-08-. 6Bush orders the deployment of U.S. forces to defend Saudi Arabia.GHW Bush
1990-08-. 8Iraq proclaims the annexation of Kuwait. Bush declares, "the sovereign independence of Saudi Arabia is of vital interest to the United States."GHW Bush
1990-10-After a Kuwaiti girl testifies that she saw Iraqi soldiers take 15 babies from incubotors and throw them on the floor, Bush begins portraying Saddam as "worse than Hitler" and quotes the girl six times in one month to shame Senate Democrats for supporting "only" sanctions. It is later revealed that the girl is the daughter of the Kuwaiti ambassador and her testimony was false.GHW Bush
1990-11-. 29The Security Council authorizes "all necessary means" to force Iraq from Kuwait if Iraq does not withdraw by 1991.Jan. 15GHW Bush
1991-01-. 12Congress authorizes Bush to use "all necessary means" to force Iraqi withdrawalGHW Bush
1991-01-. 16Air strikes beginGHW Bush
1991-01-. 17Iraq launches Scud missile attacks against IsraelGHW Bush
1991-02-. 24Coalition forces-39 nations-launch a land, sea, and air offensive. Saudi Arabia and Kuwait underwrite most of the effort; the U.S. pays only 5% of the cost.GHW Bush
1991-02-. 27Kuwait is liberated after a three-day war.GHW Bush
1991-02-. 28Saddam Hussein agrees to a ceasefire.GHW Bush
1991-04-19, The UN Special Commission (UNSCOM) is established to monitor Iraqi disarmament GHW Bush
1991-04-3,Security Council Resolution 687 formalizes the ceasefire and calls for weapons inspectionsGHW Bush
1991-06-23-28Iraqi troops fire warning shots to dissuade UNSCOM inspectors.GHW Bush
1991-08-. 2-8UNSCOM conducts its first inspections for biological weapons and learns that Iraq was pursuing biological-weapons capabilities.GHW Bush
1992-03-8New York Times reveals details of a Defense Dept. strategy report drafted by Undersecretary Paul Wolfowitz. The report outlines plans for military intervention in Iraq to assure "access to vital raw material, primarily Persian Gulf oil" and to prevent the proliferation of WMD. Bush repudiates the paper after it becomes public.GHW Bush
1992-08-. 14Defense Secretary Dick Cheney says, "[T]he question in my mind is how many additional American casualties is Saddam worth? And the answer is not very damned many." He affirms that the U.S. was wise not to get "bogged down in the problems of trying to take over and govern IraqGHW Bush
1993-01-.Iraq refuses to allow UNSCOM aircraft to make inspections and steps up activity in the southern no-fly zones. The Security Council warns of "serious consequences" and the U.S., UK, and France launch air strikes. Iraq backs down. UNSCOM resumes flights.WJ Clinton
1993-06-27U.S. launches air strikes against Iraqi intelligence in retaliation for an assassination plot against former President BushWJ Clinton
1995-07-1As a result of UNSCOM findings, Iraq admits to having a biological weapons program but denies having produced any weapons.WJ Clinton
1996-05-12Asked by 60 Minutes' Lesley Stahl if the deaths of half a million children as a result of Iraqi sanctions is worth it, Secretary of State Madeleine Albright replies, "...we think the price is worth it."WJ Clinton
1996-05-20Iraq and the UN reach an agreement allowing Iraq to sell $2 billion worth of oil if the profit is used for humanitarian purposes.WJ Clinton
1996-06-UNSCOM supervises the destruction of AI-Hakam, Iraq's main biological weapons facility.WJ Clinton
1997-06-4The Security Council renews the Oil-for-Food program. Iraq is permitted to sell $2 billion more worth of oil.WJ Clinton
1997-11-18Iraq's UN representative announces that his country will not continue with Oil-for-Food unless the UN agrees to a firm date for lifting sanctions.WJ Clinton
1997-11-20After a three-week standoff begun when Iraq refused to allow U.S. citizens to serve on inspection teams, Russia brokers an agreement. Inspections resume.WJ Clinton
1998-01-26Project for the New American Century (PNAC) sends Clinton a letter urging him to remove Saddam Hussein. Signatories include Donald Rumsfeld, Paul Wolfowitz, and Bill Kristol.WJ Clinton
1998-08-5Saddam halts co-operation with inspectors to protest sanctions.WJ Clinton
1998-09-George Bush and Brent Scrowcroft write, "Had we gone the invasion route, the United States could conceivably still be an occupying power in a bitterly hostile land. It would have been a dramatically different-and perhaps barren-outcome."WJ Clinton
1998-11-14Clinton aborts air strikes after receiving a last-minute promise from Iraq pledging unconditional co-operation with weapons inspectorsWJ Clinton
1998-12-16After Saddam reneges and blocks inspections, the U.S. launches a four-day air campaign.WJ Clinton
2000-01-26The Security Council appoints Hans Blix to lead UNMOVIC, which will replace UNSCOM.WJ Clinton
2000-08-24Tariq Aziz says "Iraq will not cooperate" with UNMOVIC.WJ Clinton
2000-10-31,UN approves an Iraqi request to be paid in euros, rather than dollars, in the Oil-for-Food program.WJ Clinton
2001-01-20George W. Bush inaugurated.GW Bush
2001-02-24Secretary of State Colin Powell says, "[Saddam] has not developed any significant capability with respect to weapons of mass destruction."GW Bush
2001-08-6While on vacation in Crawford, Bush receives a briefing entitled "Bin Laden Determined to Launch Attacks Inside the United States."GW Bush
2001-09-1119 al-Qaeda hijackers- 15 Saudis, 2 from the United Arab Emirates, 1 Lebanese, 1 Egyptian-seize control of four aircraft, crashing two into the World Trade Center and one into the Pentagon. A fourth crashes in a field in Pennsylvania. 2,976 are killed.GW Bush
2001-09-12Former counter-terrorism czar Richard Clarke recalls, "By the afternoon on Wednesday, Secretary Rumsfeld was talking about broadening the objectives of our response and 'getting Iraq.'" He said, "There's no decent targets in Afghanistan!"GW Bush
2001-09-13 7/me/CNN poll finds that 78 percent think that Saddam was involved with the attacks.GW Bush
2001-09-20 PNAC sends Bush a letter: "even if evidence does not link Iraq directly to the attack, any strategy aiming at the eradication of terrorism and its sponsors must include a determined effort to remove Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq. Failure to undertake such an effort will constitute an early and perhaps decisive surrender in the war on international terrorism."GW Bush
2002-01-29Bush identifies Iraq, Iran, and North Korea as an "axis of evil." He vows that the U.S. "will not permit the world's most dangerous regimes to threaten us with the world's most destructive weapons."GW Bush
2002-02-13 Reagan UN ambassador Ken Adelman writes in the Washington Post, "[Demolishing Hussein's military power and liberating Iraq would be a cakewalk."GW Bush
2002-02-6 CIA reports "no evidence that Iraq has engaged in terrorist operations against the United States in nearly a decade."GW Bush
2002-06-2 Bush says, "Our security will require all Americans...[to] be ready for preemptive action when necessary..."GW Bush
2002-07-10 At Richard Perle's request, Laurent Murawiec briefs the Defense Policy Board: "Iraq is the tactical pivot, Saudi Arabia the strategic pivot, Egypt the prize."GW Bush
2002-08-21 Rumsfeld says, "[The] president has made no decision to go into war with Iraq."GW Bush
2002-08-26 Cheney says, "[T]here is no doubt that Saddam Hussein now has weapons of mass destruction. There is no doubt that he is amassing them to use against our friends, against our allies, and against us." Also, "the Middle East expert Fouad Ajami predicts that after liberation, the streets in Basra and Baghdad are 'sure to erupt in joy...'"GW Bush
2002-08-30 Gideon Ezra, Israel's Deputy Interior Minister, says, "The more aggressive the attack is, the more it will help Israel against the Palestinians. The understanding would be that what is good to do in Iraq, is also good for here."GW Bush
2002-09-The Defense Intelligence Agency reports "no reliable information on whether Iraq is producing and stockpiling chemical weapons." Also, "A substantial amount of Iraq's chemical warfare agents, precursors, munitions, and production equipment were destroyed between 1991 and 1998 ..."GW Bush
2002-09-12 Bush addresses the opening of the UN General Assembly, citing a "grave and gathering danger" in Iraq.GW Bush
2002-09-15Economic advisor Larry Lindsey estimates that an invasion would cost $100-200 billion. The White House revises the figure down to $50-$60 billion. Lindsey is fired.GW Bush
2002-09-16 Iraq says it will allow, "without conditions," the immediate return of weapons inspectors.GW Bush
2002-09-17Bush issues his National Security Strategy, which calls for a policy of "preemptive" war.GW Bush
2002-09-26 After meeting with a congressional delegation about the war resolution, Bush says, "The Iraqi regime possesses biological and chemical weapons. ... The regime is seeking a nuclear bomb, and with fissile material, could build one within a year."GW Bush
2002-09-27 Rumsfeld says the Saddam/al-Qaeda link is "bulletproof."GW Bush
2002-09-7 Bush tells reporters, "A report came out of ...the IAEA that they were six months away from developing a weapon. I don't know what more evidence we need." But when inspectors left in 1998, they reported, "Based on all credible information to date, the IAEA has found no indication of Iraq having achieved its program goal of producing nuclear weapons or of Iraq having retained a physical capability for the production of weapon-usable nuclear material..."GW Bush
2002-09-8 Condoleezza Rice tells CNN, "[W]e don't want the smoking gun to be a mushroom cloud."GW Bush
2002-10- State's Bureau of Intelligence and Research reports, "the activities we have detected do not ... add up to a compelling case that Iraq is currently pursuing ... an integrated and comprehensive approach to acquiring nuclear weapons."GW Bush
2002-10-10 House votes 296 to 133 to authorize use of force and gives the president authority to take pre-emptive action.GW Bush
2002-10-11 Senate approves the Iraq resolution in a 77 to 23 vote.GW Bush
2002-10-7 Bush says, "We know that Iraq and al-Qaeda have had high-level contacts that go back a decade... We've learned that Iraq has trained al-Qaeda members in bomb-making and poisons and deadly gases."GW Bush
2002-11-8Security Council unanimously approves Resolution 1441, which threatens "serious consequences" if Iraq fails to comply.GW Bush
2002-12-19 Powell declares that Iraq is in "material breach" of UN resolutions. "The Iraqi declaration ... totally fails to meet the resolution's requirements."GW Bush
2002-12-21 Bush approves the deployment of troops to the Gulf. He also meets with CIA Director George Tenet and his top deputy. According to Bob Woodward, Bush asks, "This is the best we've got?" Tenet reassures him "it's a slam dunk" case.GW Bush
2002-12-7 Iraq submits a 12,000-page declaration on its chemical, biological, and nuclear activities. It claims to have no prohibited weapons.GW Bush
2003-01-28 In his State of the Union, Bush claims that Iraq has the materials to produce 25,000 liters of anthrax, 38,000 liters of botulinum toxin, and 500 tons of sarin, mustard, and nerve gas. He also says that Iraq has attempted to purchase uranium from Niger and has thousands of aluminum tubes "suitable for nuclear weapons production."GW Bush
2003-02-15 "The World Says No to War" is the largest co-ordinated day of protest in world history with more than 600 cities participating.GW Bush
2003-02-24The U.S., Great Britain, and Spain submit a resolution to the Security Council calling for the authorization of military force. France, Germany, and Russia offer a counter-resolution, stating that inspections should be extended, arguing, "the military option should only be a last resort."GW Bush
2003-02-25 Gen. Eric K. Shinseki, former Army Chief of Staff, says, "[Sjomething on the order of several hundred thousand soldiers are probably ... a figure that would be required." Donald Rumsfeld disagrees/The idea that it would take several hundred thousand U.S. forces I think is far from the mark."GW Bush
2003-02-5 Powell tells the UN, "They can produce enough dry biological agent in a single month to kill thousands upon thousands of people. ... Our conservative estimate is that Iraq today has a stockpile of between 100 and 500 tons of chemical-weapons agent. ... Every statement I make today is backed up by sources, solid sources..."GW Bush
2003-03-1 Iraq begins destroying its Al Samoud missiles, judged by inspectors to exceed the range limit. Turkey announces that it will not allow U.S. troops to use its bases to stage an invasion.GW Bush
2003-03-13Perle says, "The predictions of those who opposed this war can be discarded like spent cartridges." That evening, the Cheneys dine with Adelman, Wolfowitz, and Scooter Libby. Woodward reports the dinner conversation, "After Sept. 11, 2001, Cheney said, the president understood what had to be done. He had to do Afghanistan first, sequence the attacks, but after Afghanistan-'soon thereafter'-the president knew he had to do Iraq."GW Bush
2003-03-14 Only Security Council members Spain and Bulgaria support Britain and the U.S. The U.S. elects not to call for a vote on the resolution.GW Bush
2003-03-16Cheney says on Meet the Press, "[W]e believe he has, in fact, reconstituted nuclear weapons."GW Bush
2003-03-17Bush gives Saddam and his sons 48 hours to leave or face war. He claims there is "no doubt the Iraqi regime continues to possess and conceal some of the most lethal weapons ever devised."GW Bush
2003-03-19The invasion of Iraq begins at 5:30 a.m. local time.GW Bush
2003-03-2Special forces find Pfc. Jessica Lynch in a hospital in Nasiriya. She later says of the dramatic stories of her supposed fight-to-the-death, "I'm not about to take credit for something I didn't do" and of her rescue, "I don't think it happened quite like that."GW Bush
2003-03-20The United States launches a second round of air strikes against Baghdad. Ground troops cross the southern border.GW Bush
2003-03-27 Wolfowitz says "We're dealing with a country that can really finance its own reconstruction."GW Bush
2003-03-30Rumsfeld says of Iraqi WMD, "We know where they are. They're in the area around Tikrit and Baghdad, and east, west, south and north somewhat."GW Bush
2003-03-7Blix reports Iraq has accelerated its co-operation and asks for time to verify compliance.GW Bush
2003-03-9Baghdad falls. Widespread looting begins. Rumsfeld admits, "Freedom's untidy."GW Bush
2003-05-1Bush declares "major combat operations in Iraq have ended" beneath a "Mission Accomplished" banner. "The battle of Iraq is one victory in a war on terror that began on September 11,2001, and still goes on."GW Bush
2003-05-14Rumsfeld tells the Senate Defense Subcommittee: "I don't believe anyone that I know in the administration ever said that Iraq had nuclear weapons."GW Bush
2003-05-9Wolfowitz admits, "For reasons that have a lot to do with the U.S. government bureaucracy we settled on one issue, weapons of mass destruction, because it was the one reason everyone could agree on."GW Bush
2003-07-13 Iraq's interim governing council is installed. Paul Bremer is the ultimate authority.GW Bush
2003-07-22Saddam's sons die in a firefight. Referring to Iraqi WMD, Perle admits, "We don't know where to look for them and we never did know where to look for them."GW Bush
2003-07-9Rumsfeld admits the cost of U.S. forces in Iraq runs $3.9 billion a month not including reconstruction- double that previously reported.GW Bush
2003-08-19A truck bombing of UN headquarters in Baghdad kills 20, including Sergio Vieira de Mello, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights.GW Bush
2003-09-17Bush says, "There's no question that Saddam Hussein had al-Qaeda ties."GW Bush
2003-09-18Bush says, "No, we've had no evidence that Saddam Hussein was involved with September llth."GW Bush
2003-09-22Perle tells AEI, "[N]ext year at about this time, I expect there will be a really thriving trade in the region, and we will see rapid economic development... And a year from now, I'll be very surprised if there is not some grand square in Baghdad named after President Bush."GW Bush
2003-09-7Bush asks for an additional $87 billion for the occupation.GW Bush
2003-10-23-24The Madrid Conference falls short of the target of $56 billion needed for Iraqi reconstruction.GW Bush
2003-12-13Saddam is found in a hole near Tikrit.GW Bush
2004-01-22Cheney tells NPR, "There's overwhelming evidence there was a connection between al-Qaeda and the Iraqi government."GW Bush
2004-02-19Iraqi National Congress head Ahmad Chalabi, who received $340,000 per month from the U.S. and whose intelligence built much of the case for war, admits "we are heroes in error."GW Bush
2004-03-15Rumsfeld says of troops having their tours extended, "Come on. People are fungible. You can have them here or there."GW Bush
2004-03-30Photographs of abuse of Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison are published in the American media.GW Bush
2004-03-8Iraqi Governing Council signs interim constitution.GW Bush
2004-06-16The 9/11 Commission admits that there is "no credible evidence that Iraq and al-Qaeda cooperated on attacks against the United States."GW Bush
2004-06-28U.S. returns sovereignty to Iraq.GW Bush
2004-07-9Senate Intelligence Committee releases a report that states "Most of the major key judgments" on Iraq's WMD were "either overstated, or were not supported by, the underlying intelligence report." Also, there was no "established formal relationship" between al-Qaeda and Saddam.GW Bush
2004-10-6The Duelfer Report, the 1500-page product of the Iraq Survey Group, concludes that there were no WMD in Iraq.GW Bush
2004-11-8Assault on Fallujah begins. 500-pound bombs are dropped on "insurgent targets." Rumsfeld says, "Innocent civilians in that city have all the guidance they need as to how they can avoid getting into trouble." Three-quarters of the city is reduced to rubble.GW Bush
2005-01-12The White House acknowledges that the search for WMD in Iraq is officially over. Asked if the war was "worth it" even though no weapons of mass destruction were found, Bush replies, "Oh, absolutely."GW Bush
2005-01-27Clinton tells World Economic Forum, "most of the terrible things Saddam Hussein did in the 1980s he did with the full knowing support of the United States government, because he wasn't Iran."GW Bush
2005-01-30Iraq holds an election. Allawi's secular Shi'ite slate is turned out in favor of Sistani-led Shi'ite clerics.GW Bush
2005-02-14Bush asks Congress for another $81.9 billion to fund the War on Terror. Most is for Iraq.GW Bush
2005-03-3The total of American war dead reaches 1,500. Between 15,000-20,000 are estimated wounded. Reports of Iraqi civilian deaths range from 37,000-100,000. oGW Bush
(*86-12) Did you ever wonder why US - Iran relations tended to be rocky? Not the sole reason, of course.